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CAT Parallel Reasoning - Practice Questions & MCQ

Edited By admin | Updated on Oct 04, 2023 04:34 PM | #CAT

Quick Facts

  • 6 Questions around this concept.

Solve by difficulty

Read the following passage and answer the question that follows:

 

"Amidst the challenges of the modern world, acts of kindness continue to shine as beacons of hope. People from all walks of life are coming together to support those in need, whether through volunteering, donating resources, or simply offering a comforting word. These acts of compassion remind us that even in difficult times, the human spirit is capable of immense goodness."

 

What is the overall tone of this passage?

 

Directions: Read the passage and answer the following

 

In the annals of linguistics, the term "polysemy" stands as a testament to the intricate nature of language. It denotes the phenomenon wherein a single word encompasses multiple meanings, often divergent in their interpretations. This linguistic peculiarity is not a mere quirk, but a fundamental characteristic of language evolution.

 

Consider the word "bank." In its simplest form, it refers to the financial institutions where monetary transactions occur. Yet, the same word can also evoke images of a natural incline by a body of water, where one might leisurely recline. The polysemy of "bank" exemplifies the adaptability of language to encapsulate diverse concepts within a single lexical unit.

 

However, the realms of polysemy extend far beyond commonplace words. In the domains of science and philosophy, terms such as "wave" and "paradigm" demonstrate a kaleidoscope of meanings. A wave may denote a physical phenomenon in physics, a gesture of greeting, or a fluctuation in societal trends. Likewise, a paradigm can refer to a model in science, a framework in linguistics, or a fundamental shift in philosophical thought.

 

The implications of polysemy ripple through the fabric of communication, adding layers of complexity to interpretation. It challenges both native speakers and learners of a language to navigate the nuanced meanings embedded within seemingly familiar words. In essence, polysemy serves as a reminder that language is a dynamic entity, fluid in its evolution, and rich in its capacity for expression.

 

Question:

According to the passage, what is the significance of the term "polysemy" in linguistics?

 

 

Direction: Read the passage and answer the question

In the realm of ethics, the age-old debate surrounding moral objectivity versus relativism persists as a crucible of philosophical inquiry. The proponents of moral objectivity assert that there exist universal and immutable moral truths that are independent of human subjectivity. They posit that certain actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of cultural context or individual perspective.

 

On the opposing end of the spectrum, advocates of moral relativism contend that moral principles are contingent upon cultural, societal, and individual contexts. They argue that what is considered morally acceptable or reprehensible varies across cultures and historical epochs. According to this view, morality is not an absolute, but rather a fluid construct shaped by the diversity of human experience.

 

The clash between these two philosophical camps is not only a theoretical conundrum but also bears profound implications for how societies legislate and enforce moral norms. A society grounded in moral objectivity may be inclined towards codifying specific moral doctrines into laws, with little room for deviation. Conversely, a society subscribing to moral relativism might exhibit a greater tolerance for diverse ethical perspectives, fostering an environment of pluralism.

 

Moreover, the discourse on moral objectivity versus relativism intersects with questions of cultural autonomy and human rights. Advocates of moral objectivity caution against cultural practices that may infringe upon fundamental human rights, invoking a universal moral standard as the basis for criticism. Conversely, proponents of moral relativism argue for respecting cultural autonomy and eschewing ethnocentrism in the evaluation of moral practices.

 

In the crucible of this debate, it is imperative to navigate the complexities with nuance and rigour. While moral objectivity provides a framework for universal principles, it must grapple with the challenge of accommodating cultural diversity. On the other hand, moral relativism necessitates vigilance against the potential for moral complacency or the endorsement of practices that may contravene human dignity.

 

Ultimately, the discourse on moral objectivity versus relativism underscores the profound complexities embedded within the fabric of human ethics. It calls for a dialectical engagement that transcends facile dichotomies, seeking a synthesis that honours both the universality of human dignity and the richness of cultural diversity.

 

Question:

According to proponents of moral objectivity, what is the basis for moral truths?

 

Direction: Read the passage and answer the following question

A study conducted in a coastal town revealed that the implementation of beach clean-up events led to a significant reduction in marine litter and improved water quality along the shoreline. The active participation of volunteers in cleaning efforts helped protect local ecosystems and aquatic life.

 

Question

Which of the following arguments most closely parallels the reasoning used in the passage?

 

Concepts Covered - 1

Parallel Reasoning

Introduction to Parallel Reasoning in Application-Based Questions:

 

Parallel reasoning questions assess your ability to apply the same pattern of reasoning or logic found in a given passage to a new scenario or argument. These questions require you to identify the underlying structure of the original argument and then find the answer choice that uses a similar structure to reach a conclusion. Mastering parallel reasoning is important for success in the VARC section of the CAT exam.

 

Key Points:

 

Understanding Parallel Reasoning: Parallel reasoning questions present a passage or argument and ask you to find another passage or argument with a similar structure or pattern of reasoning. The content may be different, but the logical structure should be the same.

 

Identify the Structure: Begin by identifying the logical structure or pattern in the original passage. Look for elements such as premises, evidence, conclusions, and the relationships between them.

 

Analyse Answer Choices: Examine the answer choices to find the one that parallels the original reasoning. This means that the structure of the argument should match, even if the content is entirely different.

 

Beware of Trap Choices: Be cautious of answer choices that may seem similar on the surface but do not share the same logical structure as the original passage. Focus on the underlying reasoning.

 

Apply the Same Logic: Once you've identified the parallel reasoning structure, ensure that the conclusion drawn in the new argument is logically derived from the premises, just as in the original passage.

 

Example:

 

Let's work through an example of a parallel reasoning question:

 

Original Passage:

"The increased use of smartphones has led to a decline in face-to-face social interactions among young adults. As individuals spend more time on their devices, they have fewer opportunities for in-person conversations, which can impact their interpersonal skills."

 

Parallel Reasoning Question:

"Which of the following arguments parallels the reasoning in the original passage?"

 

Approach:

 

Identify the Structure: In the original passage, the structure involves a cause-and-effect relationship. Increased smartphone use (cause) leads to a decline in face-to-face interactions (effect). The passage also discusses the impact on interpersonal skills.

 

Analyse the Answer Choices: Examine the answer choices to find one that shares a similar cause-and-effect structure, even if the content is different.

 

Evaluate the Answer Choices:

 

a) "The expansion of online shopping has resulted in reduced foot traffic in physical stores. As more consumers shop online, traditional retail spaces are seeing a decline in customers, which affects their profitability."

 

b) "The popularity of streaming services has caused a decline in cable television subscriptions. With more people opting for streaming, cable providers are facing challenges in retaining customers, impacting their revenue."

 

c) "Recent environmental regulations have led to decreased industrial emissions. As stricter regulations are enforced, factories are reducing their emissions, which has a positive impact on air quality."

 

d) "The introduction of electric vehicles has decreased the demand for traditional gasoline cars. As consumers shift toward electric vehicles, gasoline car manufacturers are experiencing a decline in sales, affecting their profitability."

 

Correct Answer: Option a) "The expansion of online shopping has resulted in reduced foot traffic in physical stores. As more consumers shop online, traditional retail spaces are seeing a decline in customers, which affects their profitability."

 

Explanation: Option a) parallels the reasoning in the original passage. It presents a cause-and-effect relationship similar to the original argument, where increased smartphone use leads to a decline in face-to-face interactions, just as the expansion of online shopping leads to reduced foot traffic in physical stores.

 

Identifying parallel reasoning involves recognizing the logical structure of arguments and finding similar structures in answer choices. Practise parallel reasoning questions to improve your ability to apply the same pattern of reasoning across different scenarios.

 

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